Swimming is an Olympic modality since the first Games of the modern era and since then the export has evolved greatly and has had different champions and records achieved. The most famous drawings were found in the Kebir desert and are estimated to be from around 4000 BC. [citation needed] The Japanese also used underwater photography to research the stroke mechanics, and subsequently dominated the 1932 Summer Olympics. Differences between Rugby and American Football, Artistic Gymnastics [ History, Rules, Categories, … ], Fundamentals of Volleyball [ History, Rules, ... ], Sitting Volleyball [ History, Rules, ... ]. One of the most notorious swimmers ever won dozens of medals recently, from 2004 to Beijing in 2008 and already with some decline in 2012, but nevertheless strong, Michael Phelps dominated swimming in the most varied styles, imposing several records and becoming the athlete with the most medals of the Olympic Games since its existence, and this record is far greater than the athlete who previously held it. However, one Japanese swimmer, Masaru Furukawa, circumvented the rule by not surfacing at all after the start, but swimming as much of the lane under water as possible before breaking the surface. Australia had swimmers at most major international swimming events since the 1896 Summer Olympics. Shortly thereafter in 1973, the first swimming world championship was held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia by the FINA. Around that time another modification to the backstroke became popular. [8] The Haloren, a group of salt makers in Halle, Germany, greatly advanced swimming through setting a good example to others by teaching their children to swim at a very early age. 100 Years of the NSW Amateur Swimming Association, Lester-Townsend, 1990; Osmond, G. and, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA), Deutsche Lebens-Rettungs-Gesellschaft (DLRG), "Swimming and Aquatic Activities: State of the Art", "News Article for 12 November 2007, "Making a Splash for 74,000 Pounds"; Early British Swimming 55 B.C.-A.D. 1719, by Nicholas Orme (University of Exeter Press:1983)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_swimming&oldid=985698385, Articles needing additional references from March 2008, All articles needing additional references, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 12:36. The Indian palace Mohenjo Daro from 2800 BC contains a swimming pool sized 12 m by 7 m. The Minoan palace of Knossos in Crete also featured baths. Lane in 1901, swimming 100 yards (91 m) in 1:00.0, an improvement of about ten seconds compared to the breaststroke record. [8] By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London. Another innovation is the use of flip turns for backstroke. Swimming emerged as a competitive sport in the early 1800s in England. In 1696, the French author Melchisédech Thévenot wrote The Art of Swimming, describing a breaststroke very similar to the modern breaststroke.

[14], (References: Davis and E.S. Depictions of swimmers have also been found from the Hittites, Minoans and other Middle Eastern civilizations, in the Tepantitla compound at Teotihuacan, and in mosaics in Pompeii.[1]. The second Olympic games in Paris in 1900 featured 200 m, 1000 m, and 4000 m freestyle, 200 m backstroke, and a 200 m team race (see also Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics). Swimming activity has been around for thousands of years. Suzuki, having practiced the underwater technique for 10 years, surfaced only a little bit earlier, winning the race in 55.05. Breaking the water surface reduces the speed in swimming. Swimming was part of the first modern Olympic games in 1896 in Athens. For example, there is open water swimming that is done in the open sea and also has the same objective but with much greater distances (several kilometers, sometimes making the connection between two islands). Henry Sheffield designed a rescue can or rescue cylinder, now well known as the lifesaving device. These pictures seem to show breaststroke or doggy paddle, although it is also possible that the movements have a ritual meaning unrelated to swimming. The women's competitions were 100 m freestyle and four by 100 m freestyle relay. Marks Sporting Collections, Mitchell Library, Sydney; Clarkson, A. The first gold medal was won by Alfréd Hajós of Hungary in the 100 m freestyle. Although the new stroke was really the reintroduction of a more intuitive method for swimming, one that had been in evidence in ancient cultures such as Ancient Assyria, his method revolutionized the state of competitive swimming – his stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today. According to the rules, a backstroke swimmer had to touch the wall while lying less than 90 degrees out of the horizontal. Front crawl variants used different ratios of scissor kicks to arm strokes, or alternated with a flutter (up-and-down) kick. First, get the student used to the water; second, practice the swimming movements out of the water; and third, practice the swimming movements in the water. It consists of the athlete being with the chest facing down and makes a movement where he pushes the two arms forward at the same time and then opens them, simultaneously doing the same with the legs. Competitive national swimming championships were first held in 1894.

[7] In 1793, GutsMuths from Schnepfenthal, Germany, wrote Gymnastik für die Jugend (Exercise for youth), including a significant portion about swimming. During the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, he won seven gold medals. In 1972, another famous swimmer, Mark Spitz, was at the height of his career. At the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, lane dividers made of cork were used for the first time, and lines on the pool bottom aided with orientation. Digby regarded the breaststroke as the most useful form of swimming. 10,000-year-old rock paintings of people swimming were found in the Cave of Swimmers near Wadi Sura in southwestern Egypt. The speed of the new stroke was demonstrated by F.V.C. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

The pointed ends made it slide faster through the water, although it can cause injuries.

The Nagoda bas-relief also shows swimmers inside of men dating back from 3000 BC. There are also tests called “proofs of styles” which can be done individually or by stamps, in which all styles are used every x meters and in a predefined order.

His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until Bill Burgess made the crossing in 1911. History of Swimming. In 1908, the world swimming association Fédération Internationale de Natation Amateur (FINA) was formed. Previously, the arms were held straight during the underwater push phase, for example by the top backstroke swimmer from 1935 to 1945, Adolph Kiefer. In competition, 4 styles are used, they are: This is considered the oldest style there is. In 1922, Johnny Weissmuller became the first person to swim the 100 m in less than a minute, using a six kicks per cycle Australian crawl. The umpire team established by the International Swimming Federation is a bit extensive as we will see now: There are other forms of swimming without being the “pure” that is composed of these things that we talked about earlier. Hajós was also victorious in the 1200 m event, and was unable to compete in the 500 m, which was won by Austrian Paul Neumann. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892. The FINA has changed the rules to allow the swimmers to turn over completely before touching the wall to simplify this turn and to improve the speed of the races. These platforms are a square with 50 centimeters of side and have non-slip material for the swimmer to have a match without problems. In 1938, almost every breaststroke swimmer was using this butterfly style, yet this stroke was considered a variant of the breaststroke until 1952, when it was accepted as a separate style with a set of rules.

The first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The Deutsche Lebens-Rettungs-Gesellschaft (DLRG) (German lifesaving organization) was established on October 19, 1913 in Leipzig after 17 people drowned while trying to board the cruise steamer Kronprinz Wilhelm. Hajós was also victorious in the 1200 m event, and was unable to compete in the 500 m, which was won by Austrian Paul Neumann.

There are also many mentions of swimmers in the Vatican, Borgian and Bourbon codices. [10] In his stroke, the arms were brought forward, alternating, while the body rolled from side to side. Other European countries also established swimming federations; Germany in 1882, France in 1890 and Hungary in 1896. His books describe a three-step approach to learning to swim that is still used today. The British did, however, adapt the breaststroke into the speedier sidestroke, where the swimmer lies to one side; this became the more popular choice by the late 1840s. Our nation has always proven its prowess in the pool on the world stage and there are many famous Australian swimmers. In 1934 Armbruster refined a method to bring the arms forward over water in breaststroke.

The 1956 Games in Melbourne also saw the introduction of the flip turn, a sort of tumble turn to faster change directions at the end of the lane. In Seoul, Kristin Otto from East Germany won six gold medals, the most ever won by a woman. Armbruster and Sieg combined these techniques into a variant of the breaststroke called butterfly with the two kicks per cycle being called dolphin fishtail kick. The Times of London reported disapprovingly that the Native American stroke was an unrefined motion with the arms "like a windmill" and the chaotic and unregulated kicking of the legs. The backstroke was also introduced to the Olympic Games in Paris, as was water polo. The rule was changed to require breaststroke to be swum at the surface starting with the first surfacing after the start and after each turn. Your email address will not be published. In 1798, GutsMuths wrote another book Kleines Lehrbuch der Schwimmkunst zum Selbstunterricht (Small study book of the art of swimming for self-study), recommending the use of a "fishing rod" device to aid in the learning of swimming. Stay up to date with the swimming community and your swimming heroes. In the same year the first elastic swimsuit was made by the sweater company Jantzen. At that time, this was not restricted by FINA backstroke rules. In 1895, J. H. Thayers of England swam 100 yards (91 m) in a record-breaking 1:02.50 using a sidestroke. The British competitor used the traditional breaststroke, while the Native Americans swam a variant of the front crawl, which had been used by people in the Americas for generations, but was not known to the British. In the seventeenth century, the Japanese began to take swimming lessons at school compulsory. An Egyptian tomb from 2000 BC shows a variant of front crawl. Therefore, swimming underwater increases the speed. Required fields are marked *.