Months with the lowest UV index are January, November and December (UV index 1). [312] Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden (created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace and redone by André Le Nôtre between 1664 and 1672)[313] and the Luxembourg Garden, for the Luxembourg Palace, built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the Senate. [83] In 2011, the City of Paris and the national government approved the plans for the Grand Paris Express, totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines to connect Paris, the innermost three departments around Paris, airports and high-speed rail (TGV) stations, at an estimated cost of €35 billion. [291] Beauvais-Tillé Airport, located 69 kilometres (43 miles) north of Paris' city centre, is used by charter airlines and low-cost carriers such as Ryanair. Troubadours, from the south of France, were also popular. [94] On 19 June, a man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into a police van on the Champs-Élysées, but the car only burst into flames. The month with the longest days is June (Average daylight: 16.1h). The Socialists had governed the region for seventeen years. [281] Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library, Leonardo da Vinci University Library, Paris School of Mines Library, and the René Descartes University Library.[282]. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated. [153] Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between the 1960s and 1970s to provide a low-cost solution for a rapidly expanding population:[154] These districts were socially mixed at first,[155] but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible to the middle classes only from the 1970s). Several of the best-known restaurants in Paris today appeared during the Belle Epoque, including Maxim's on Rue Royale, Ledoyen in the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, and the Tour d'Argent on the Quai de la Tournelle. When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786, the contents of all Paris' parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement. [119] The council of each arrondissement is composed of members of the Conseil de Paris and also members who serve only on the council of the arrondissement. After the marshland between the river Seine and its slower 'dead arm' to its north was filled in around the 10th century,[34] Paris' cultural centre began to move to the Right Bank. The prestigious public universities are usually considered grands établissements. The final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1951 and EuroBasket 1999 were also played in Paris, the latter at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy. [17] The city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. The regional council has 121 members from the Union of the Right, 66 from the Union of the Left and 22 from the extreme right National Front. The basketball team Levallois Metropolitans plays some of its games at the 4,000 capacity Stade Pierre de Coubertin. The Alps & Pyrenees draw the crowds during the ski season (December-March) as they fill up the resorts, ready for skiing and winter sports activities. Paris averages 1.9 people per residence, a number that has remained constant since the 1980s, but it is much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average. The first independent Paris Commune, or city council, met in the Hôtel de Ville and, on 15 July, elected a Mayor, the astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly. [150] Long-intended measures to unite Paris with its suburbs began on 1 January 2016, when the Métropole du Grand Paris came into existence. No, Not At All – Here's Why", "Hanoi strengthens ties with Ile-de-France", "Les contours d'une population susceptible d'être musulmane d'après la filiation", Musée de Cluny – Musée national du Moyen Âge, Institutional seats of the European Union,, Populated places established in the 3rd century BC, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from June 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 2: Weather Atlas (percent sunshine and UV Index), This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 00:26. The district also includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, as well a government offices and ministries. 7.9 billion Euros are designated for city administration, and 1.7 billion Euros for investment. It was highly controversial, and it remains the only building in the centre of the city over 32 storeys high. New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: The largest of these are the Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen, the Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known as Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny), the Cimetière parisien d'Ivry, and the Cimetière parisien de Bagneux. [167] City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this in a statistical aire urbaine de Paris ("urban area", but a statistical method comparable to a metropolitan area[168]), that had a 2017 population of 12,628,266,[169] a number 19% the population of France,[170] and the largest metropolitan area in the Eurozone. [248], Paris is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisian jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing Bal-musette in the city. France has a mainly temperate climate. Diderot and d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie in 1751, and the Montgolfier Brothers launched the first manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 November 1783, from the gardens of the Château de la Muette. [217] In the Paris region, Disneyland Paris, in Marne-la-Vallée, 32 kilometres (20 miles) east of the centre of Paris, received 9.66 million visitors in 2017. [5] Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018.[6][7]. [332], The most-viewed network in France, TF1, is in nearby Boulogne-Billancourt. Summers here can be very hot and sunny – sunburn is a risk if you're unprepared. [12] Its treasures include the Mona Lisa (La Joconde), the Venus de Milo statue, Liberty Leading the People. The island of Corsica, southeast of Nice, is made up of two départements. At night temperatures read 0°C (32°F) or even lower depending on the blowing wind. The name 'Paris' is derived from its early inhabitants, the Gallic Parisii tribe. Paris offers a bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 parking stations,[303] which can be rented for short and medium distances including one way trips. In 2012, 14 percent of households in the city earned less than €977 per month, the official poverty line. [26], The Romans conquered the Paris Basin in 52 BC and began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank. No – Was It Before? [330] France 24 is a television news channel owned and operated by the French government, and is based in Paris. As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art". Spring (March-May) and autumn (September-October) are decidedly quieter; prices are also considerably cheaper. 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